This depends on your caffeine tolerance (which is determined by gender, age, height, weight, and a bunch of other factors) but in general, the side effects of too much caffeine can last for several hours after consumption.
In rare instances, some people feel side effects the following day, but again, this is rare. You'd probably have to chug a ton of Monster at one time to feel it the next day (don't try this at home.)
But according to Healthline, caffeine's effect on our bodies peaks within 30-60 minutes of consumption, which is when you're most likely to feel jittery.
How long your jitters last will depend on how fast your body can metabolize the caffeine and how much you had in the first place.
You can't expedite the process either by drinking water or exercising. The only way to lower your body's caffeine levels is letting your body metabolize the caffeine naturally.
Caffeine has a half-life of around 5 hours in your body, meaning after 5 hours the level of caffeine will be half of what it was when you drank it. So if you have 200mg of caffeine, five hours later there'll be 100mg left in your system.
That being said, you can't accelerate the half-life of caffeine as I said - the best you can do is stop drinking caffeine and wait for the jitters to wear off.